Greek historian on Nabateans – 50 BC

“They live under the open sky and claim as fatherland a wilderness that contains neither rivers nor goodly springs from which a hostile army might draw water. They have a law forbidding them to sow grain, plant orchards, make wine or build houses. Anyone who does so will be executed. They follow this principle because they believe that anyone who possesses such things in order to get a use from them is vulnerable to powerful men, who can compel their obedience. Some raise camels, others sheep, which they pasture in the wilderness. Although there are a great many other Arab tribes that use the desert as grazing land, the Nabateans, though numbering only 10,000 men, far exceed them in wealth…, because many regularly transport frankincense, myrrh and the choicest spices to the sea, products that they take over from people who bring them out of so-called happy Arabia. Their country, without water, is impenetrable to enemies, but the Nabateans fill cisterns and caves with rain water, making them flush with the rest of the landscape. They leave markers there which only they understand. They water their herds only every third day to accustom them to a flight throughout a waterless country.”

– Greek historian Diodorus Siculus, 50 BC

موسى بن نصير

“والشيب في الرأس غير الشيب في الهمم.”
“الرجولة في العقل وليس بالعمر.”
 
– موسى بن نصير بالرغم من كبر سنه فتح الاندلس

عشيرة العزيزات في عام 1904

صورة لرجال من عشيرة العزيزات المسيحية في مدينة مادبا الأردنية في عام 1904. العزيزات هم من القبائل البدوية المسيحية العريقة في المنطقة والتي يُرجح أن أصلها يعود إلى الغساسنة.

إنتشار القبائل العربية في مصر

مع دخول الإسلام مصر أصبح من البلاد التي شجعت القبائل العربية على الهجرة إليها والإقامة فيها، فاستقرت في صحاري مصر واندمجت أيضا مع أهالي الدلتا ووادي النيل. الخريطة ليست دقيقة 100٪ بس توضح إنتشار القبائل العربية في مصر.

Naval control of the Mediterranean

The Arabs in pre-Islamic times were not entirely unacquainted with the sea. For centuries before the rise of Islam the peoples of southern Arabia built ships and carried on important maritime traffic in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. But the northern Arabs, and particularly those of the Hijaz and of the Syrian and Iraqi borderlands, were primarily a continental people, with little knowledge of the sea or of navigation.

It is one of the most striking features of the great Arab conquests that they should have adapted themselves so readily to this new form of activity. Within a few years of their control of the Syrian and Egyptian coastlines the people of the landlocked deserts of Arabia, with the help of local shipwrights and sailors, had built and manned great war fleets which were able to meet and defeat the powerful and experienced Byzantine navies and to give to the Caliphate that vital prerequisite of its safety and expansion — the naval control of the Mediterranean.

In the picture below is portrayed the Battle of the Masts fought in 654 (A.H. 34).

الموزاراب

كان كثير من المسيحيين في الأندلس قد اندمجوا في الثقافة العربية حيث تعلم بعضهم العربية و ارتدى بعضهم ملابس الحكام بل وارتدت بعض المسيحيات الحجاب وبعضهم حمل أسماء عربية. وقد حمل المسيحيون الذين اندمجوا في الثقافة العربية اسم الموزاراب.

في الصورة مخطوطة مستعربة.

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